Just two months ago, in September 2018, the IOTA ring was successfully commissioned, and the program of the advanced beam physics studies has since begun. One of the most interesting scientific topics at IOTA will be studies of beams made of a single electron.
Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the “muscle” of many modern particle accelerators. By cooling these devices to cryogenic temperatures (usually around 2 Kelvin, or minus 456 degrees Fahrenheit) and inputting electric power, SRF cavities increase the energy of beams of charged particles passing through them. Making cavities out of superconducting materials dramatically increases their efficiency (represented by a cavity’s quality factor, or Q), allowing them to accelerate beams to high energies over short distances, without leaving long cool-down times between particle beam pulses.
It is hard these days not to encounter examples of machine learning out in the world. Chances are, if your phone unlocks using facial recognition or if you’re using voice commands to control your phone, you are likely using machine learning algorithms — in particular deep neural networks.